PictureRx illustrated medication lists and labels have been rigorously evaluated in studies sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and American Heart Association. These studies demonstrate that PictureRx can facilitate counseling, improve medication understanding, increase adherence, improve patient satisfaction, and reduce potentially harmful medication errors after discharge.

Enhanced Medication Understanding

In an NIH funded trial, 200 Spanish-speaking Latino patients with diabetes at a primary care facility were randomized to receive either their standard written medication list or a visual-based PictureRx card. Patients in the intervention group had a better overall understanding of their medications (p<000.1), including greater ability to report the drug indication (p0.01), strength (p<0.05), dosing (p<0.01), and frequency of administration (p<0.001). 1

Increased Confidence

In a study with 100 at-risk older adults living in community housing, PictureRx significantly improved patients' confidence in taking medications correctly (p<0.001) For example, confidence in correctly taking several medications each day improved from 30% to 75%; confidence in taking medication more than once per day improved from 40% to 75% (could show this visually). 2

Increased Adherence

Patients who are given a PictureRx medication list at discharge are far more likely to be aderent with their doctor's instructions. In a randomized controlled trial of 435 patients with heart disease recruted from an urban, public hospital, PictureRx format instructions improved medicaiton refill adherence by 20% overall. The odds of adherence were doubled in high-risk groups including patients taking > 8 medicaitons, with less-than-average confidence about how to take their medications, and who had some non-adherence at baseline. 3

Reduced Medication Errors

PictureRx format instructions have been incorporated in hospital-based medication reconciliation and discharge counseling. In a large randomized medication reconciliation and discharge counseling. In a large randomized controlled trial funded by the NIH, an intervention that used PictureRx format instructions resulted in 31% reduction in potentially harmful medication errors after discharge from Vanderbilt University Hospital (p<0.05). 4


1) Kripalani S, Riley MB, Mohan A, Mashbum J, Davidson E, Boyington DR. Illustrated Instructions Improve medication understanding: a randomized controlled trial. Poster presentation at the 4th Health Literacy Annual Research Conference: Bethesda, MD, October 2012. Poster presentation at the 2012 Summit on the Science of Eliminating Health Disparities: National Harbor, MD, October 2012.

2) Martin D, Kripalani S, DuRapau VJ Jr. Improving medication management among at-risk older adults. J Gerontol Nurs 2012;38(6):24-34. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22587641)

3) Kripalani S., et al. Improving Medication Adherence through Graphically Enhanced Interventions in Coronary Artery Disease (IMAGE-CHD): A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2012; 27(12):1609-1617.

4) Kripalani S., et al. Effect of Pharmacist Intervention on Clinically Important Medication Errors After Hospital Discharge: A Randomized Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012; 157(1):1-10

    We rigorously test and evaluate our work to ensure value!


    Medication Understanding Scores

    Reduction in Potentially Preventable Adverse Drug Events

    PictureRx Restores confidence as patients understand their medicines and take them properly.

    We rigorously test and evaluate our work to ensure value